Results and problems of engineering environmental site investigations in the area of the Stockman gas-condensate field exploration area Печать E-mail

Murmansk Marine Biological Institute RAS JSC "SEVMORNEFTEGAZ"

In 2003 according to the agreement with the joint-stock company of the closed type «Sevmomeftegaz» engineering ecological site investigations have been earned out by Murmansk Marine Biological Institute in the area of Stockman gas condensate field, along the route of the planned submarine pipe-line and in the area of the supposed outlet of the pipe-line to the coast.

These investigations consisted of two parts: marine and coastal. Similar results of engineering environmental site investigations are presented in three volumes of the report (Report..., 2003). 

In this paper the results of marine investigations are shortly presented. Marine expedition was carried out on board the R/V «Dalnye Zelentsy» of Murmansk Marine Biological Institute in the period May 16-June 01, 2003. 31 oceanographic and hydrochemical stations are fulfilled including 10 complex stations. 43 phytoplankton samples on 21 stations are collected (including those collected from 3 depths at the complex stations), by 11 zooplankton, ichthyoplankton, benthos samples, 10 trawlings are fulfilled for the fish fauna analysis, ornithological and teriological observations on the area about 138 km2 have been earned out, samples for pollutants concentrations estimation were selected (11 stations/32 samples), in bottom sediments (20/20), in biota (6 trawlings), on radioactive contamination (5 stations/5 samples).

On the basis of the generalizing of the expedition investigations results in 2003 and characteristics of the region (review) by long-term data on the object of investigation the estimation of the current state of the correspondent ecosystem's component in the investigation area is given. Qualitative forecast of possible changes which might occur in the marine ecosystem component in the area of the planned industrial activity is also presented.

State of marine ecosystem in the places of the planned works on the arranging of the Stockman field might be characterized upon the whole as stable not leaving the frames of the average long-term variability («norm»). But the latter is referred mainly, to the abiotic factors and the lowest links of ecosystem. The highest links of the Barents Sea ecosystem during last 1.5-2 decades overcame noticeable modifications in connection with the unstable forage base subjected to a strong impact of the overexploitation. Thus, modern relative stability of the marine ecosystem has to be considered as only one of the transitional states of the dynamic system trajectory, subjected to the irregular internal and external changes.

For the all-sided quantitative estimation of the ecological consequences full-scale EIA procedure is obligatory. For maximally fullest account and forecast of changes in the area of the possible impact Stockman field during construction and exploitation of the objects a prolonged series of observations earned out also during engineering ecological investigations. But now we have only the results of one stage of complex engineering ecological investigations- the results of the year 2003. Besides, according to the set of the ecosystem's components obtained during engineering ecological investigations results for the year 2003 can hardly be considered sufficient for both: EIA fulfillment and for the subsequent usage in the forecasts and estimations of the Stockman field impact on the environment (avifauna-marine mammals, radioactive contamination).

By the results of the marine and coastal expeditions for the year 2003 proposals for the subsequent carrying out of the engineering-ecological investigations and formation of the data base of the industrial ecological monitoring are formulated. Quantitative analysis of possible changes in the marine ecosystem as the result of the planned economic activity is also given.

The experience gained allows to say some remarks and recommendations on subsequent conduct of such kind of works.

First of all, valid Statute books of Rules 11-102-97 are developed and are applied for the designs realized on the land but not at sea. Three-dimensional aquatic environment and conditions for inhabitancy of organisms change significantly the demands to the composition and amount of investigations which are not given in details in any of the guiding documents.

Secondly, in conditions of the marine areas unpopulated by the man the major accent in the investigations is regularly shifted to the preserving of flora and fauna of the seas. And the program of investigations should take into consideration and offer the possibility to estimate consequences of already being fulfilled traditional types of anthropogenic activity affecting the biodiversity and bioresources (commercial fishery-mainly)

Thirdly, an extreme variability and interconnection of marine biota components condition others (in comparison to land) requirements to the spatial- temporal network of observations and samples collection (coverage, seasons, presence or absence of ice cover).

In Statute-book of rules 11-102-97 it is pointed out that changes in fauna abundance must be estimated on the basis of the long-term observations (in average for the decade period). At sea there must be correctly estimated on the basis of the long- term observations not only biota, but also all parameters of its inhabitancy. Optimal combination of details and a wide coverage presents a serious problem (scientific-economic, methodical, organization).

Considering the peculiarities discussed engineering environmental site investigations carried out in 2003 in the area of Stockman field objects impact are to be considered reconnaissance, moreover they were carried out for the first time in the coastal zone. For obtaining reliable data which might be included as the basis to the chapters «Estimation of environmental impact assessment» (EIA) at the stage investments grounding and «Nature protection» (NP) in the construction design three term for carrying out engineering-environmental site investigations are necessary: these are

- program of marine, coastal and terrestrial engineering environmental site investigations for 5-10 years minimally

- program and the plan of annual investigations (tactical) collected according to the results of already fulfilled works accented in different years for tracing of different seasonal phases of natural phenomena but preserving principal scheme and amount of observations, measurements and analyses;

- fulfillment of the investigations by one and the same collective of specialists during the whole period of design realization under the constant scientific-methodical government of the major organization (in our case - MMBI). This term objectively follows the specific features of systematic determination of biota objects, requiring participation of experts on separate groups of animals. Insufficient degree of studies of marine biota species (more than 2.5 thousand species of benthos only) a deficiency of highly qualified marine biologists specializing in systematic might lead (and frequently leads) to the complicated and incomparable conclusions, thus, to the incorrect estimate of the impacts1 consequences. The part of expert constituent in the interpretation of biological material is objectively much higher that in other types of works which hinders the generally accepted engineering unification.

Considering the concept of industrial ecological monitoring developed before the start of construction works there must be compiled a data base on the biota and environment state for the area of possible impact of Stockman field. The basis of this base is to be constituted of the primary data obtained during engineering environmental site investigations. According to the results of engineering environmental site investigations in the year 2003 the primary data should be compiled into the tables, though they are not a manageable data base. Development of the latter is independent work might last for several years It should be agreed as for the periods with the developers of the Stockman design industrial ecological monitoring and the requirements to this base are to be agreed with those for the whole industrial ecological monitoring system.

All enumerated above terms are to our opinion necessary for the successful implementation of all stages for ecological grounding of the Stockman design.

Report on fulfillment of the works on the profit and loss - basis N 02/2003 "Engineering environmental site investigations for the construction of the Stockman gas condensate design arrangement objects (marine and coastal investigations). Leader of works G.G. Matishov, deputy leader A.A. Shavykin. MMBI. Murmansk. 2003 // Book 1. Marine engineering environmental site investigations. P. 1-265 // Book 2. Engineering environmental site investigations in the coastal area and in the coastal zone. P. 266-467 // Book 3. Technical assignment. Materials of investigations. Amendments. P. 468-776 (in Russian)
CODE OF PRACTICE 11-102-97. Engineering environmental site investigations for construction / Gosstroy. M.: PNIIIIS Gosstroy of Russia (in Russian)



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