Главная Conceptual issues of the north transport development program
Conceptual issues of the north transport development program Печать E-mail

Economic development of northern territories of Russia is an ongoing, ever-growing and widespread the effectiveness of which (institutional, economic, social, environmental) in an increasingly significant extent upon the economy of the Russian state and its role in the global economy.

Long practice of economic development of northern territories of Russia shows the need for mandatory compliance with the eclectic developed principles and rules. Before you begin to economic development of uninhabited territory (and resources), especially, it need to be phased program of action on various fronts and their combined and concerted sequence.

Available in the XX century, the practice of large-scale exploitation of resources in the North of Russia (Hibiny, Vorkuta, Norilsk, BAM, Tyumen, Usinsk, Ayhan-peace, etc.) inevitably shows that the lack of pre-sound plan of action necessarily leads to serious violations economic, social or environmental plan. With the upcoming increase in the volume of economic activities in the Russian North catastrophic consequences not rational, not-thought-of human activity can only reinforce the existing problems of society before they collapse state that clearly will not contribute to the survival strategies of Russia in an increasingly increased competition in the global market.

The long (almost a hundred year) experience of the processes of economic development of Russia's North points to the need for priority allocation and consistent implementation of policy actions in the following areas:

- Simulation of the transport development of the "new" areas;

- Creation of an economically sound and rational network of settlements and the issues of labor planned economic action. At the same time addressing the conservation of local populations, their ethnicity and traditional culture;

- Establishment of the phasing of capital construction, energy and housing and communal services, industrial and social infrastructure;

- Creation of industrial facilities, long-term transport facilities;

- Networking, software simulation of the processes to ensure ecological balance and monitoring.

The transport development concept

The basis of the economic model of the transport development of the "new" northern territories of Russia is the need to create more reliable and efficient transport routes (and resources), sequential shift from one-time implementation, freight transport and labor resources to the systematic, organized, large-scale, more efficient cargo-passengers.

In doing so, primarily because of the natural resource capacity of the newly mined region (stock, stock, location, geology, etc.) as well as the importance of public primary or initial development of specific resources there may be various options for transportation development. Specific objectives (urgency, magnitude, election scheduled phases of recoverable resources) cause the selective, privileged, or integrated use of various types of vehicles. Long practice of the transport development in Siberia, North and Far East predestinate strict compliance with the balanced evolution of the use of vehicles for the development and maintenance of economic activity in these Russia macro zones. First and foremost is the need to cost the limited financial resources of the society.

In the first stage of economic development of "new" areas, where the most important area is the geological and bio-climatic study are used primarily by sea, river, air and cross-species transport. Total cost of transport operations perform research work in this period exceed 40-5% of the total expenditure. 

In the second stage, when the company starts to create centers of industrial production and a permanent home, living growing contingent of people there is a need for efficient goods and cargo-passengers. Based on the scientific development of new transport schemes territories (and the features extracted raw materials) addresses the phased establishment of permanent networks and the rational use of transport resources.

Long practice of the development of Russian North and Siberia shows that the initial phase of large-scale economic activity in parallel with the use of increasing amounts of "traditional" means of transportation (sea, river, air and the cross, starting with the XX century) has set up local networks using the most cost - modes of transport. Most of all these are roads, less Railway (Vorkuta, Norilsk Railways).

If the under development of mineral and other resources requires significant freight traffic, depending on the availability of local transport routes (especially water) in the vehicle development process involves more mobile and do not require a large investment model of development of transport systems and structures, including the necessary service facilities .

In the third stage of the transport development of the northern territories of Russia, as a rule, a gradual connection of local networks with the local transportation nationwide transportation hubs.

Integrated, sustainable use of transport for the region allows reducing the share of the transport component of the gross regional product and enhancing its competitiveness in domestic and international markets.

The key to the concept of the transport development of northern territories in Russia is:

- A program, a sequence of solutions and at the same time complexity, to create coherence and development of certain types of transport routes and the technical means of transport;

- Rational use of various modes of transport driven by selective involvement of different transport modes in the series created and developed transport chains, which are most effectively realized the economic and technical potential of various types of transport communications;

- Use the most sophisticated, efficient and reliable vehicles at all times been one of the most important principles of development of transport schemes for the northern territories of Russia;

- The need for greener vehicles and increase in economic development of territories of the Russian North will continue to grow. This circumstance is due to high anthropogenic load of many modes of transport in a biological system is easy to violate the North. Thus, the widespread use of road transport in the area north of Russia leads to intense pollution of the atmosphere, hydrosphere and lithosphere. Air transportation violates air balance, increasing the living conditions of people in the North.

Unsafely built, the more inadequate and technically dated formation ways and operation of commonly used in the North of pipeline systems often lead to environmental disaster severely reducing the economic impact of natural resource development. Thus, the environmental disaster in April 1994 in the Republic of Komi - the accident at the pipeline Usinsk field caused the loss to society is many times greater than the economic impact of extractive companies and continues to negatively affect the ecology of land use and health of living in the area of population.

Abstract. For transport development of Russian North have national significance and affect every part of society and production: strategic and defense, economic and environmental aspects of natural resources, the competitiveness of Russian raw materials (at the beginning of economic development) in the global market of labor and energy. The State's obligation to provide the transport development program and rationality of these areas consistently investing in addressing these issues as well as providing a cost-effectiveness and environmental friendliness of use of various means of communication and transport means. It is urgent need for constant monitoring of the quality issues of transport development of the North.

Andrianov VA, PhD,  Institute of Management and International Relations (Syktyvkar)



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