Главная CONCEPT OF INDUSTRIAL ECOLOGICAL MONITORING OF STOCKMAN PROJECT MARINE ECOSYSTEM MONITORING
Concept of industrial ecological monitoring of stockman project marine ecosystem monitoring Печать E-mail

MATISHOV G.G., SHAVYKIN A. A., DZHENYUK S.L., YARYGIN G.A., TEMKIN V.M., DOLOTOVSKAYA L.Z.
Murmansk Marine Biological Institute RAS ITC "Orgecogaz"DOAO "Orgenergogaz" JSC "Gazprom"

In 2002-2003 by the assignment of the joint stock company of the open type «GAZPROM» a concept of industrial ecological monitoring (IEM) of the Stockman project was developed.

In the development of this project several organizations took part. It includes 4 books: book 0 «Initial statements», book 1- «IEM of marine excavating complex and marine pipe-line of the Stockman project» (Concept...,2003), book 2 «IEM of the gas main pipe-line Teriberka-Volkhov», book 3 «General systematic solutions on the IEM holding».

During construction, exploitation and elimination of the marine excavating complex and submarine pipe-lines potential dangers of negative impact on the environment emerge as the result of systematic contamination of the natural environments and/or possible accidental situations. The aim of the IEM establishment and functioning of Stockman project is information supply for the nature protection of the Stockman gas-condensate field location area at all the stages of the field exploration. Into the tasks of the ecological monitoring system there included investigation of the technogenous processes impacts on the nature environment at all the stages of the Stockman gas-condensate field vital cycle.

Ecological accompany of construction and exploitation of the whole Stockman project includes several stages: before construction monitoring, monitoring on the stage of construction, monitoring during exploitation, monitoring at the stage of liquidation of the object. At all the stages of design realization stalling since construction monitoring, control of sewerage, and wastes discharges as the sources of marine environment contamination is carried out in the zone of construction impact and exploitation of the marine excavation complex (MEC) and marine pipe-line system (MP).

In the paper the monitoring of marine ecosystem (marine environment and biota) as a composite part of the industrial ecological monitoring concept of Stockman project is discussed. This monitoring includes: monitoring of chemical and physical contamination of marine environment among which control of bottom sediments, biota monitoring, including bacteria, phyto and zooplankton, ornithological and ichthyiofaunas, marine mammals, hi the paper there described marine ecosystem parameters being controlled, temporal and spatial intervals for measuring these intervals are given.

Before construction stage: Background ecological monitoring in the area of the future construction of MEC and MP objects is carried out as a part of engineering environmental site investigations. It includes:

- estimation of sea water quality including background contamination;

- estimation of bottom sediments background contamination:

- biota monitoring: plankton (bacteria, phyto-, zooplankton), bottom fauna (benthos); avifauna, fish fauna, marine mammals.

Background ecological monitoring in the MEC and MP areas is carried out in accordance with normative-engineering documents (Statute Book of Normative and Rules 11-02-96 and Statute Book of Rules 11-102-97, Guiding Document 51-01-11-85).

Construction stage at large fields (deposits) is accompanied with the increased anthropogenic loading. Choice of parameters being controlled in the frames of IEM is fulfilled on the basis of recommendations expressed in the (Guidelines.... 1989; Patin, 2001). On this stage the following parameters are commended for the control:

At the sea waters monitoring:
? hydrological indices: temperature, transparency, color of water; turbidity (suspended matters);
? hydrochemical indices: pH. dissolved oxygen, biogene substances. BOD5, oil products, SSAS.

At the monitoring of bottom sediments the following analyses are earned out:
? descriptive sedimentology: visual description of the sediments' surface, odor (smell), color, analysis of granulometric composition (per cent contents of tractions), redox potential;
? chemical analysis: oil products, SSAS, iron, heavy metals, barium. At the monitoring of biota observations are earned out:
? zoobenthos: there estimated the number of species per unit of area or in the unit of volume of sediment, the number and biomass of individuals of each species:

Additionally by the demand of fish protection authorities monitoring of commercial fish fauna might be added to the program of monitoring.
Monitoring of sea waters, bottom sediments, marine biota is carried out by the ships surveys, installation of automatic buoy stations, carrying out of hydrological and hydrochemical observations from the floating and stationary platforms and by network of stations for samplings. Periodicity of control at the construction stage is in the range from one till several times (depending on the period of construction).

Exploitation stage. Considering the vulnerability of the Barents Sea ecosystem and the fact the Stockman gas-condensate field objects are referred to the ecologically dangerous objects it is recommended to include into EEM the monitoring of sea waters, bottom sediments and biota. Recommendations presented in the (Guidelines....1989; Patin, 2001) are put into the background of the monitoring on this stage.

At the sea water monitoring there recommended the following list of indices under control:
? hydrological indices: oil films, temperature, turbidity (suspended matters), transparency;
? hydrochemical indices: pH, salinity, dissolved oxygen, organic matter, BODs, oil products, SSAS.

Monitoring of bottom sediments. Considering a large degree of dissolution of all contaminants entering from the marine ice resistant platforms and other installations in the Stockman gas condensate field area, the geochemical contamination of bottom sediments control is presupposed only in the areas of the installation of engineering constructions - in the area of Marine excavating complex. The following analyses are recommended for the fulfillment:
- descriptive sedimentology (visual description, odor (smell), color etc.):
- analysis of granulomere composition (per cent contents of fractions):
- chemical analysis (oil products, SSAS, iron, heavy metals, barium).

At the marine biota monitoring it is recommended to observe the:
? zoobenthos: there estimated the number of species per unit of area or in the unit of volume of sediment, the number and biomass of individuals of each species;

Additionally by the demand of fish protection organs monitoring of commercial fish fauna might be added to the program of monitoring.
For the purpose of estimation the degree of benthos communities restoration after put into exploitation the marine excavating complex it is recommended to cany out monitoring of the major parameters of marine environment, bottom sediments, biota in the marine excavating complex area once during the first 3 years after the object is put into exploitation and subsequently once each 5 years.

Monitoring of sea waters, bottom sediments, biota is earned out by the ships surveys, installation of automatic buoy stations, carrying out of hydrological and hydrochemical observations from the floating and stationary platforms and by network of stations for samplings.

Stations are installed with the increase of the distance from the center in geometric progression (for instance, 0.25, 0.5, 1.0, 2.0 km etc.) along the two directional axis system. Platform is the center of the axis system. The major axis is parallel to the direction of the prevailing current and the second is perpendicular to the first, hi the areas where strict direction of the prevailing current lacks the major axis is located along the most probable direction (for instance from north to south). If this is possible, the supporting station is to be located in 10 000 m from the platform into the direction opposite to the direction of the prevailing current but at the same depth and at the same type of sediments as other stations. If this is impossible, control station might be located in other direction and closer to the installation though not closer than б 000 m distance. Position of each station is fixed.

Location of other points of control is chosen based on the current character of the current, location of the water contamination sources (floating pipe welding base, pipe-laving ship, suction-tube-dredge)

In the presentation there described a creating base of the background ecological data (data base of the before construction monitoring). Proposals for the data base compilation of the before construction monitoring on the basis of already available materials and data are formulated.

On the marine excavating complex and on the marine pipe-line during construction and exploitation accidental situations with discards and discharges of gas, gas condensate, stratal waters, methanol, and/or other chemical substances are also possible, hi this case during liquidation of the accident and after finishing this project in the frames of industrial ecological monitoring functioning there must be applied a special ecological monitoring program for the accompany of the accidental contamination liquidation and estimation of its real consequences.

Composition of in the information-measuring network, hi accordance with the requirements to the composition of the parameters under control and periodicity of their measurements the following measuring links might be included into the information-measuring network composition of the Stockman design sea environment monitoring: floating ecological laboratory, automatic buoy stations, stationary ecological laboratory, means for the remote sensing monitoring.

Capital expenditures for the establishment of the industrial ecological monitoring system of the Stockman field sea area are estimated as 2005 thousand US dollars. Exploitation expenditures for the functioning of the EEM system in the working regime are estimated as 420 thousand US dollars. Value of expenditures is calculated based on the conceptual statements and recommendations. During designing works types of monitoring, composition of the parameters under control and time-limit of control, composition and the structure of the information-measuring network and information governing sub-system will be verified. Correspondingly, cost of expenditures will be verified.

References
Concept of establishing the system of industrial ecological monitoring of the Stockman project / Book 1 "Industrial ecological monitoring of the marine excavating complex and marine pipe-line of the Stockman project" Murmansk: ETC "Orgecogaz" JSC "Gazprom" MMBIKSC RAS, 2003 P. 184. (in Russian)
Patin S. A. Oil and ecology of continental shelf. M.: Publ. VNIRO. 2001 247 pp. (in Russian)
GD 51-01-11-85 Governing normative document. Ecological investigations at the engineering environmental site investigations on the continental shelf. Requirements to the methods. VNIIPImomeftegaz. 1986. 16 pp. (in Russian)
Statute Book of Normative and Rules 11-02-96 Engineering site investigations for construction. Major statements, (in Russian)
Statute Book of Rules 11-102-97 Engineering environmental site investigations for construction. / Gosstroy Russia. M.: PNIIIS Gosstroy Russia. 1997. 47pp. (in Russian).
Guidelines for monitoring methods to be used in the vicinity of the platforms in the North Sea. 1989.

ARCTIC SHELF OIL AND GAS CONFERENCE 2004


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