Giprospetsgaz, Russia, Scientific and Production Company «DIEM», Russia

The development of marine oil and gas fields and construction of marine gas transportation systems requires an integrated approach to ensure environmental safety in the design, construction and operation of marine mining systems and underwater pipelines.
Gazprom in the framework of its activities presents a combination of production and environmental protection. This principle is the basis for project development of Shtokman gas condensate field (GCF).

The structure of Shtokman GCF sites include: marine objects of mining complex, a marine gas pipeline, plant for production of liquefied natural gas, port facilities, marine pipeline for shipment of liquefied natural gas, trunk overland pipeline.

Each site of the structure has its own characteristics in terms of environmental protection. These characteristics are taken into account when developing materials for environmental impact assessment, including a set of environmental activities, allowing technological facilities so as to ensure their impact on the environment in the permissible limits, both during construction, and during operation, to minimize the possibility of emergency, to prevent and effectively eliminate their effects in a timely manner.

Environmental impact assessment is a process (a number of measures) to identify, analyze and integrate direct, indirect and other implications of the environmental impact of proposed economic and other activities, conducted with the participation of the public in the face of indigenous / local, interest public and environmental organizations with a view to adopt an environmentally well-founded management decisions on the implementation admissibility or inadvisability of planned and other economic activities. EIA focuses on the concept of sustainable development and represents a tool for building environmental, industrial and information security control systems in the implementation of planned activities.

EIA is carried out for working out all alternatives of preproject, including preinvestment and design documentation, which justifies the proposed activity.

The main phases of investment planning and conduct of EIA in Russia include:
• Forming an investment idea and the development of the Declaration of Intent, including the section «EIA»;
• Justification of investments and preparation of relevant documentation, which includes the section «EIA»;
• Actually the design of the facility and a feasibility study (FS) of the project, which includes a section «Activities of the Environmental Protection» (AEP).
The EIA procedure includes the following steps:
• Notification of interested parties on the proposed activity, preliminary assessment and a technical task to undertake an environmental impact assessment;
• Conduction of research on EIA and preparation of a preliminary version of the EIA. Public awareness of prepared materials. Receiving comments and suggestions;
• Conduction of final version of EIA in the light of the comments and suggestions.
The development of Shtokman GCF environmental improvement sections is based on the results of engineering and environmental research (EER).

The tasks to be resolved with EER are:
• obtaining a full status picture of all environmental components in the territory which would be affected by the project (being addressed during the EER);
• A generalized assessment of the impact of the project on these components;
• generalized reflection of technical activities and organizational solutions to minimize the negative impact of the project on all parts of the environment, social and economic situation of the territory that would be affected by the project.

With the development of Shtokman field during the EER evaluated:
• The status of the marine environment, including sea water, bottom sediments, benthos, plankton, ichthyofauna, marine animals and birds;
• The state of geological environment, especially in terms of dangerous geological processes in the water area under development;
• The status of air;
• The level of natural and man-radiation contamination;
• Economic and social status of the territory;

Moreover, given that the development of Shtokman field means the creation of infrastructure, located on the shore, the EER assessed the territory as well.

During the construction and improvement the major impact is of the craft for the preparation, delivery and installation of production facilities, use of machinery and equipment, dredging, drilling operations at sea. Therefore, basically we are focusing on the monitoring of:

1. air,
2. marine environment, including:
• seawater,
• bottom sediments,
• benthos,
• plankton,
• ichthyofauna,
• marine animals and birds,
3. dangerous geological processes,
4. levels of physical impacts,
5. compliance with the Rules for the Treatment of mud,
6. compliance with the rules for the treatment of waste, generated during construction.
During the operation the major impact represents from the technical means that ensure the functioning of the mining platform, floating, serving platform and personnel, based on the platform.

An important section in the EIA and AEP are the solutions for the production environmental monitoring (PEM) on the construction and operation stages of the oil and gas deposits development.

During construction monitoring stage is carried out operational monitoring of compliance with laid down in a construction project activities, also for the resulting violations of the natural environment during the construction phase and the possible adverse processes.
In a period of exploitation provides the organization of a permanent system PEM, which is responsible for monitoring the components of the environment, processing and analysing of monitoring data, forecasting changes in environmental conditions.

The material of EIA on the reduction of negative impact of the construction and operation provides a number of environmental activities, such as the use of highly efficient gas equipment, removing the possibility of polluted technological water discharges, production of construction and installation work strictly within the boundaries of designated areas. In addition, EIA consideres health-protective zones, the organization of protection zones of natural objects with limited natural resources, placement of polygon objects on a residential area, taking into account the «wind roses» and several other environmental measures.

The materials of EIA development of Shtokman field have been harmonized with the public in the areas of alleged construction sites. An overall analysis of the recommendations, suggestions and concerns of stakeholders and the public opinion showed that most participants in the process of informing, being awared of the submissions, were in favor of the project, subject to mandatory compliance with the standards of environmental legislation. Great attention public gives to minimize the negative impact on all components of the environment, the development of environmental protection, socio-economic significance of the project and the gasification of settlements.

Completed, unde with the population proposals, development of justification of investment Shtokman field materials were reviewed by the state environmental examination (SEE) committee and received its positive conclusion.

State environmental examination - is the most effective legal mechanism to prevent negative impacts on the environment and to realize the right of public participation in environmental decision-making. With regard to the development of oil and gas facilities in the offshore area, the state environmental examination must be for: «... pre-project and project documentation relating to the regional geological study of the continental shelf, the prospecting, exploration and exploitation of mineral resources, ..., the construction of various buildings, underwater pipelines ...».
Thus, the solution to the problem of environmental safety in the development of Shtokman gas field is held with the preparation of the EIA documentation, discussing the future construction with public and conducting environmental impact examination.



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