Главная TECHNOLOGICAL-METHODICAL ASPECTS OF STATE MONITORING
TECHNOLOGICAL-METHODICAL ASPECTS OF STATE MONITORING Печать E-mail

MATVEEV JU.K, KORNEEV O.JU., RYBALKO A.E., FEDOROVA N.K.
SEVMORGEO, Russia

Beginning of mining of oil and gas fields on shelf of the Barentz Sea and the activating of exploration works on other license sites has essentially changed objectives and organizational-methodical principles of realization of State monitoring of a geoenvironmental (SMGE) on western-arctic shelf. Till 2005 main objective of this exploration works was securing of the control of the geological environment on license sites and definition of the background response characteristic. Accordingly, the annual investigations were conducted predominantly in a southeast part of the Pechora sea, in Shtokman area.

The development of a station network was connected with license program of the MNR of Russian Federation. Other ecological organizations, mainly, MMBI acted by similar image. The specialists of the MMBI have conducted background ecological monitoring on all main oil and gas fields. Major total of these activities was the public acknowledgement that the exploration stage of largest oil and gas fields development practically has not rendered influencing on a ecological condition of region.

The development of a network of license sites should be accompanied by creation of ecological monitoring services of license holder. These services in accordance with legislation should execute the manufacturing ecological monitoring in the limits of the license areas. The federal organisations should be massed on an estimation of regional changes of geologic environment, which one can happen as under influencing natural, and anthropogenous factors.

For example the global changes of a climate influencing on change of the sediment characteristics of the Barentz and Kara seas are appear anthropogenous factor. Two factors are extremely relevant for formation of new networks of observation: the estimation of the real technogenical threats to an environment of the Barentz-Kara shelf and detection of potentially vulnerable areas, on which anthropogenous activity can influence most substantially.

From the point of view of geologic environment, potentially dangerous the so-called sediment traps are: zones ofintensive accumulation of recently sediments, and also coastal zones, specially in the of the Pechora sea. Sharply increased in last years the transportation of hydrocarbons by a tanker fleet, and also place of their transfer, extension of activity of oil and gas complex, outlets and the atmospheric emission of industrial firms, radionuclide hazard also concern to number of anthropogenous threats. Activity of Navy concern to number of other hazards, and also industrial fishering. The extensive development of fishing branch has damaged, in opinion of the academician G.G Matischov, main injury of an ecology of the Barentz Sea, first of all had an effect on sharp reduction of reserves a fish. The station network of State monitoring should be formed in view of all above-stated factors.

The federal stations should, on the one hand, control possible sources of technogenic threats, and, with another - to place in test regions, where the change of monitored parameters mirrors global changes of geoecological situation in shelf of the studied seas. The in first case of the control monitoring stations should place in immediate proximity from technogenic objects. The five federal stations in the Kola Bay, which one allow to control change of a geoecological situation in it area, are meted these requirements. The special attention the federal services of monitoring should give to zones of development of oil and gas complex. In this case stations should place outside of limits of the license sites, in zones, most vulnerable from the point of view of accumulation of the oilhydrocarbons. To such regions, in the Pechora Sea concerns a trough along island Novaja Zemlja, where are accumulated thick series of precipitations of Holocene pelitic sediments, and the speeds of modern sedimentation are maximal for all southeast part of the Barentz Sea. The present schedules of development of license sites envision practically solid development on shelf in these areas of the Barentz Sea. However, this circumstance, on our view, should not imply definitive leaving from here of federal supervisory authorities behind an environment, including monitoring of geologic environments. Apparently, the changes in the legislation of Russian Federation are indispensable, which one envision a possibility of realization of the long-time control behind geoenvironment in new shelf mining regions. In this case this station will play a control role at an estimation of ecological materials transmitted holders of a license to State fund of the data.

The regional stations should place in the main depressions of Barentz shelf. Here at dominating in the Barentz Sea transit sedimentation takes place relatively intensive accumulation of modern clay muds. The chemical composition this mud mirrors both natural oceanological and geological factors, and impact of technogenic chemical components as a result of transortiration in a water strata and with aerosols. First course it is known on an example of Nordcape flow, which one is an intensive source of receipt in the Barentz Sea of radionuclides and other chemical components. The second direction rather young, but already now, in many respects due to work of the employees of Institute of Oceanology under the direction of the academician A.P Lisitzyn, it is clear, that the occurrence in bottom deposits of the Barentz Sea of lead, in many respects is connected with aerosolens.

The development of the oil and gas complex on western-arctic shelf causes occurrence of extremely relevant geoecological problem, the solution by which one can be conducted only within the framework of federal monitoring. There are modern geodynamic processes, which one on the one hand are caused potential geodynamic moving of Earth crust on the faults, actuated in a Holocene, and with another - result in occurrence of outbreaks of natural hydrocarbon, which one can be actuated at realization of drilling. These outbreaks can result also in insecure conclusions at counting ecological injury from activity of oil and gas branch.

Now views about passive seismicity of Russian platform, in particular of north of the Arkhangelsk area are changed. The majority of the detected structures, perspective on oil and gas is connected with faults. Most strong in Western Arctic earthquake by force 6,75 balls on a scale of Richter were fixed in 1915 on archipelago of Spitsbergen. For expired time in this area 5 pushes by force more than 5 balls and set of seismic events of smaller force were marked. In 1979 in neighborhoods of Hinlop fault on Spitsbergen 16 push's by force 2,9-3,4 balls were fixed. Near to the island Novaja Zemlja (New Earth), in 200 kms from Schtokman field) on a line of SouthBarentz fault in 1974 there was an earthquake by force 4,4 balls. The results of geological-geophysical studies testify, that the majority of known showings of oil and gas shows, or is arranged in a zone of large tectonic faults, or place near to them. The measurements in bottom sediments and near-bottom waters of concentrations of heavy metals and hydrocarbons have shown, that both in the Pechora sea, and on Shtokman area license site the local anomalies are fixed. They can not be connected to anthropogenous processes, because these areas are not disturbed. The level of these anomalies sometimes comes nearer to a level of technogenic pollution, and for heavy metals even exceeds it. According to our opinion occurrence of such anomalies can be connected to an infiltration of hydrocarbons fluids from bottom sediments.

The major conclusion is the necessity of the taking into account of modern geodynamic processes. Now network of seismic stations in the Russian North is minimum, that also is one of reasons of imaginary low seismicity of Barentz Sea shelf. Principal new direction of SMGE is possible transfer from discrete investigations of earth crust (profile both of gravity-magnetic and seismological observations) to long-time continuous measurements of changes of tension of gravitational and magnetic fields in a real time with the automated bottom stations. These stations can fill a deficit of seismic stations and informed oil and gas firms about geodynamic processes. It is extremely important, that the presence of such stations can help with forecasting negative natural phenomena. For the greater efficiency such stations should place in zones of tectonic faults (is more preferential, in zones of their coupling).

Besides these stations should provide and collecting sedimentary particles, that will allow to track a level of entry in zones of accumulation of polluting components.

The considerable concern introduces comparing practice, adding up in Russia, of monitoring of marine water areas in oil-and-gas-bearing regions with rules of the International convention OSPAR. In Norway working within the framework of this convention, monitoring of an environment in zones of a mining of oilhydrocarbons on shelf the company "«Akvaplan-Niva" executes, 90 % of the stocks belong to which one to the state. A state policy in using of bowels execute the Ministry of an environment and Agency of control of pollution. The main document is «The Management on development of sea-floor deposits of oil and gas», approved by Arctic Advice in 2002. In Russia of a function of State monitoring are segregated between Russian Hydrometheorological Service, Rosnedra and Rosprirodnadzor. Each of these authorities has regional divisions, which one and execute of monitoring under the local documents. One of basic disadvantages of this system is the absence of unified informational - analytical Center, where all obtained information was collected. The great many of organizations conductive environmental monitoring, is foregone conducts both to the different methodical approaches, and to a difference in realization of chemical-analytical researches. Now in Russia on Arctic shelf the platforms for mining of hydrocarbons are practically absent. Accordingly, holder of a license does not carry out monitoring of these sites. In too time the anthropogenous load on shelf increasing from operations on oilhydrocarbons overload and intensive traffic of a tanker fleet. Therefore the state should execute the monitoring functions, preventing thus threat of pollution of shelf.

In too time many methodical approaches both within the framework of the international convention OSPAR, and in Russia are similar. The main object of researches is the bottom deposits and benthos. In Russia the greater attention is given to abiotic components, in particular, near-bottom waters and pore waters. The international convention envisions fractional analysis of oilhydrocarbons. In Russia this practice is developed in last years. In too time ungrounded uprating of monitored ingredients is watched. It matters at obtaining the background characteristics. But, the actuation of all spectrum of hydrocarbonats in further monitoring results only in rise in price of activities, and, therefore, to decrease of volumes of researches. Nevertheless, it is possible to state, that the data of the Russian environmental monitoring as a whole correspond to the requirements of the convention OSPAR, that allows to conduct the comparative analysis of a condition of an environment on shelfs of the Norwegian and Barentz seas. The problem of such analysis, as well as harmonization of the methodical approaches to realization of the monitoring, and to ways of a state estimation of an environment is one of vital problems of further Russian-Norwegian cooperation.

OIL AND GAS OF ARCTIC SHELF 2006 (PROCEEDINGS OF INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE) 


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