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ENERGY FROM BRAKES Печать E-mail
As is known, capacity of the engine basically is defined by a cubic capacity of Internal combustion engine cylinders in this connection in the basic criterion auto structure classification Internal combustion engine is the volume of cylinders. Therefore, being guided by the set volume of the cylinder designers try to receive the maximum capacity on a shaft by optimisation of all functional knots of the car. At carrying out of sports competitions frequently shares of percent of additional capacity of the engine solve issue of a suit. However perfection of modern cars so highly that the slightest increase in capacity is given with the big work and reached frequently to the detriment of comfort and safety.

Other way to increase capacity of the engine practically in 4 times can be realised, using energy of braking even at normal turns of the engine. Such possibility can appear if cardinally to reconsider Internal combustion engine work and to change the scheme of work of valves. At sports competitions as well as at driving on a city the driver especially often have to brake and again to speed up. Thus energy of the car at braking is allocated basically on brake pads. If to keep this energy and use at the subsequent dispersal it is possible to raise considerably running characteristics of the car repeatedly increasing capacity on the most difficult sites of road. As a rule it is a set speed mode after braking, at overtaking, lifting of a site of road, etc. 
 
Use of the raised capacity at a dispersal stage also can favorably affect traffic safety and appear useful on sports meets. 

It is known from physics that the energy reserved by the car is proportional to weight and a square of speed. At braking all this energy is allocated basically on brake pads, heats up a wheel and further is blown off by a head wind. On the other hand, after braking frequently it is necessary to speed up again that demands increase in capacity and the additional expense of fuel. In this case it is more reasonable to save up energy of braking and to use it at the subsequent dispersal. 
 
Such scheme is realised in electric drive transport where the power electric motor is translated in a mode of the electro generator and energy of movement of a tram or a trolley bus is transferred in a network. The economy of energy and effective braking is thus provided. Unfortunately, such capacious accumulator as the city electric network at the car is not present therefore for effective braking can serve as the unique consumer of energy only the compressor which in Internal combustion engine in separate constructive knot is not allocated. 
 
To reach such operating mode it is possible if to change the scheme of communication of valves with cranked shaft. Namely, it is necessary to break rigid link of a cranked shaft with valves, having cleaned a camshaft and to provide management through the onboard computer connected with electromagnetic valves and pneumoamplifiers. Electromagnetic valves are studied for a long time by designers of cars however effort to the valve in Internal combustion engine big enough and they turn out too bulky. That the scheme was compact and could be located in engine dimensions it is offered to establish in addition pneumatic amplifiers. In this case the scheme despite technological complexities turns out easy, compact and can be established on a traditional place instead of a camshaft or in a blockhead. 

If to consider work Internal combustion engine it is possible to notice that in the four-cycle engine two steps are used for preparation of the compressed air, one step is the worker and one step releases the cylinder from the fulfilled gases. I.e. in the first turn of cranked shaft Internal combustion engine works as the compressor and on the second turn there is a transformation of energy of the compressed gas.

The new scheme of electronic control with electromechanical pneumatic drive valves is capable to switch engine cylinders in a compressor or converter mode. If at a piston course downwards to open the valve on intake and at a course upwards to open the final valve the cylinder will work in a mode of the compressor and will pump up air in an additional receiver. 
 
In a mode of the converter of energy in the top dead point of the cylinder in the compression chamber under pressure the fuel mix is injected and set fire, thus both valves are closed the piston goes downwards, making a working course. Further the piston goes upwards the final valve and the fulfilled gas opens leaves the cylinder. In this mode the cylinder works as the converter. 
 
Presence of compressed air in a reserve receiver allows translating all cylinders of the engine in a converter mode for which work it is required only two steps. As a result, capacity of the engine increases twice as the quantity of working courses twice will increase. As a rule, capacity that spends the engine for two steps of work of the compressor as makes about 50 % of internal combustion engine regular capacity. At use of the ready compressed gas the power consumption on the compressor does not occur and the useful exit increases still twice concerning two working steps by a turn. As a result, increase in the expense of fuel twice and the economy of energy on the compressor at regular turns of the engine increases internal combustion engine capacity in a mode of dispersal of the car approximately in 4 times concerning regular capacity. 
 
If requirements for allocation of the big capacity are absent, energy of braking goes on economy of fuel at frequent braking driving in the conditions of a city or at frequent liftings and descents on a cross-country terrain. 
 
Such scheme, certainly, technologically more difficult also demands to change the scheme of communication of valves with shaft and also to bring some additional valves and a receiver but capacity increase in 4 times on the responsible sites of road connected with traffic safety and economy of fuel are capable to pay back such completion internal combustion engine with interest.

S. Poniatowski, S. Dzhanshiev

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