Главная Creation of ecologically safe marine transport systems
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MININ V.V., VALDMAN N.A., VISHNEVSKY A.M., RAZLETOVA A.B. Krylov Shipbuiding Research Institute, Russia

Development of oil-and-gas fields on the shelf of the Russian northern territories is connected with creation of transport-technological complexes (TTC) comprising offshore platforms and terminals, icebreakers, technical fleet, support and supply vessels, shuttle and open-water tankers, gas-carriers, oil storages, offshore transshipment complexes, etc.

Specific climatic conditions, light day duration, pattern of the ocean surface heat exchange with the underlying layers and the atmosphere, spatial distribution of the Earth magnetic fields, bottom contour, types of coast and shallow tides essentially reduce natural self-regulation of environment.

In this connection, development of intensive navigation and creation of offshore industrial facilities in this region requires special attention to securing of ecological safety.

FSUE Krylov Shipbuilding Research Institute, being a leading research center for shipbuilding and ocean engineering, pays significant attention to actual problems of improving the marine transport systems (MTS) and securing their safety at the IMO required level.

The basic areas of research and studies at the Institute in MTS design are:
• Developing the state strategy and policy in creation of offshore technical and transport facilities and vessels, construction programs preparation;
• Developing the normative base for offshore facilities and vessels design, technical regulations, standards and rules;
• Developing the normative - technical documentation, methodical materials for offshore structures design;
• Design of new high technology vessels and facilities;
• Design of modern oil carriers of various displacement;
• Design of specialized rescue ships and ecological safety control vessels (oil and oil product spill response, oil skimmers, ecological control vessels etc.);
• Environmental impact assessment of transport-technological systems;
•Definition of design type and optimum characteristics of offshore facilities of transport-technological systems, based on the problem to be solved, allowable environmental impact, maintenance of optimum habitability conditions with regard to minimum expenses on their creation and operation;
• Research and design-experimental support to design activities;
• Developing the techniques and programs for the control of habitability conditions and ecological safety on TTC facilities;
• Control over realization of normalized habitability conditions during design, construction and operation of TTC facilities by the Medical-technical center of hygiene of shipbuilding facilities, offshore structures and transport;
• Evaluating the occupational risks on TTC facilities and developing measures to reduce them;
• Projects and TTC facilities ecological safety expert evaluation.

FSUE Krylov Shipbuilding Research Institute has carried out a complex of feasibility studies and experimental work to the order from some of the domestic and international companies, such as: ОАО Gazprom, ОАО NK LUKOIL, ОАО Rosshelf, ОАО PermNIPIneft, ОАО Sevmorneftegaz, ОАО Lukoil - Arctictanker, ZAO Varandeyneftegaz, ОАО Giprospetsgaz, Wintershall (Germany), Halliburton (USA), Kvaerner Masa Yards (Finland), Berlindhaug (Norway) etc.

Operation of dangerous facilities comprising hydrocarbon transport complexes requires safety control measures to be developed that provide for the analysis of risk of accidents, as well as development of measures to reduce it.

It is necessary to bear in mind that the fact that environmental pollution levels are allowable and, therefore, safe for humans does not mean that they are safe for other flora and fauna species as well. Long processes of biosphere contamination with substances at allowable levels and concentration may result (especially in conditions of the North) in their accumulation in various parts of the ecosystem in inadmissible concentration, what would lead to deterioration of a qualitative condition of the environment, and consequently, worsening human habitation conditions as well.

Ecological safety of hydrocarbon transport requires evaluation of technogenic and anthropogenic factors role as causes of emergencies and accidents.

Evaluation of ecological risk for humans and animals assumes revealing dangers, assessment of doze - effect interaction, assessment of exposure, hazard and risk character definition.

Ecological safety of the region when exporting hydrocarbons from the Arctic offshore can be provided only through the complex of interrelated legislative, technical and organizational measures developed with respect to specificity of TTC operation conditions.

The legislative measures include development of legislative and normative - technical documentation (laws, governmental decrees, technical regulations, rates and standards).

Among technical measures are:
• Design and use of vessels meeting the international and national requirements to Arctic operation conditions;
• Use of modern ecologically safe transport facilities and transport operations support vessels;
• Providing facilities with modem ecological equipment, water surface survey aids;
• Organizational - technical safety of cargo handling activities;
• Improving reliability and ecological safety of hydrocarbon transport systems;
• Expedient selection of means for prompt oil and other hydrocarbon spill recovery, allocation of means, equipment and oil spill response vessels.

Organizational measures include:
• Technical-hygienic monitoring of transport systems;
• Arranging local and regional ecological monitoring of water area and atmospheric air;
• Arranging the operations of warning, spill survey, localizations and recovery;
• Training the personnel to act in emergencies and their examination;
• Preparation of qualified personnel, certification of TTC specialists and ships' crews;
• Providing hygienically allowable conditions and labor regimes for TTC personnel and ships' crews;
• Carrying out medical examinations and developing the TTC personnel and ships' crew rehabilitation system;
• Developing the measures to reduce role of human factor as a cause of emergencies;
• Developing the facility's oil spill response plans and contingency planning.

On data ITOPF the most often reasons of incidents and accidents with oil spills are handling, collisions and impacts, beaching and human factors. An analysis of the given reasons allows determining the basic directions of works on warning of environmental pollution.

The issues of reducing negative influence of physical, chemical and psychosocial factors on shipboard personnel have acquired significant importance in solving the problems of environment protection in hydrocarbon transport, along with such issues as introduction of modern sewage treatment and disposal systems, garbage and wastes disposal systems, air purification systems.

Ecology-hygienic monitoring of the environment is necessary for determination of control method of ecological safety in the region. Its structure includes system of scientific and technical, methodical, organizational, sanitary-and-epidemiologic and social sections.

Practical realization of ecological-hygienic monitoring on transport systems with the assistance of the Institute, owner companies and supervisory bodies will reduce risk of accidents and will allow the ecological safety of hydrocarbon export from the Arctic offshore to be provided.

For good safety functioning of Arctic marine transport systems infrastructures are necessary for developing also:
• a complex of normative requirements regarding more strict regulation of pollutants emissions (flying organic compounds, inert gases etc.) and waste disposal and effluent discharging into the Arctic environment;
• informational - analytical system for estimation of risk and safety of marine operations and of marine oil transportation around the shelf of Russia;
• a concept of ecological monitoring of oil/oil products spills on export oil routes.



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