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Главная TOURISM ON THE KOLA PENINSULA: THERE IS A POTENTIAL FOR DEVELOPMENT
TOURISM ON THE KOLA PENINSULA: THERE IS A POTENTIAL FOR DEVELOPMENT Печать E-mail

Tourist business — one of most quickly developing branches of the modern world economy. The international tourism is included into number of three largest export branches conceding only to oil-extracting industry and motor industry.

There are two categories of firms involved in the organization of tourism - tour operating companies and travel agencies. 
Tour operators companies (tour operators) - a wholesale company acting as intermediaries between enterprises of the tourism industry in some regions and groups of people wishing to become tourists and those living in other regions. For the organization of tourist trips tour operators establish liaison with the lodging, food, transportation, cultural and educational agencies and tour operators, operating in places where tourists go. Most tour operators have leased long-term contracts hotels and other accommodation facilities, airplanes, buses, providing them with the maximum loading, and receiving substantial discounts. 

Travel Agency (Travel Agency) - is a retail company, playing the role of intermediaries between the tour operators with and service companies, on the one hand and individual customers, tourists on the other. Tourist or organize tours offered by tour operators with or engaged in the provision of certain services to individual tourists or groups of individuals, establishing direct links with transport operators, hotel corporations, Tour Desk. Ask tours carried out at prices set by tour operators and specified in their prospectuses. For the implementation of travel agencies receive a fixed commission from tour operators. 

A new trend in the development of tourism business has been the emergence of tourism corporations - large enterprises, which bring together a wide range of companies representing various types of tourist services. It is largely monopolized the market and become a powerful cross-industry production and economic systems, which include companies in various industries, serving the tourist industry, as well as banking, insurance and other companies and selling tours through an extensive network of tour operators and travel agencies in different countries. 

Russia today is its strong position in world tourism but not as much as we would like: 23 mln. tourist arrivals to the territory of Russia - is about 2% of the total world tourist flow. It should be noted that several years ago that figure was only 1%. This growth rate assumes that by 2010 Russia will take 9 place for tourist arrivals, i.e. enter the top ten leading countries for tourism. 
World Tourism Organization has identified some of the most promising segments of the tourism development: 

• cultural tourism (grows faster rate - 10% of world tourist flow); 

• ecological tourism (hiking, traveling, etc.) 

• a thematic or specialized tourism (fishing, hunting, etc.) 

• Cruises 

Murmansk region thanks to its unique nature and climate has every reason for the development of the above types of tourism. 

The proximity of the tundra, forest tundra and forest zone makes it possible during the trip to get acquainted with the flora, fauna of three natural zones. Most of the peninsula lies north of the Arctic Circle, so there's a half months in the summer sun never sets and reigns in the winter polar night. But at the same time, the Nordkapp branch of the Gulf Stream brings warm so on the northern coast of the peninsula in the winter is warmer than in the middle of European part of Russia. Cross-border location of the area creates special conditions for the development of tourism-based markets adjacent countries. 

The Government of the Murmansk region identify priorities for further development of the region's economy - import and domestic tourism. This is defined in the document "Strategy for Tourism Development in the Murmansk region for the period till 2015" which was approved by Government Decision 6 February 2004. 

The main objective of tourism policy of the Government - is to increase the competitiveness of the regional tourism product in the domestic and foreign markets. This requires an effective advertising policy aimed at creating an image of the Murmansk region as a region favorable for tourism. 
In recent years in the tourist area there have been significant positive changes: 

1. Murmansk region gained its tourist image; it is recognizable among the other regions of the northwest Russia. This helps to use the word "most": the most northern city, the shortest night, the most northern trolley, etc. This is a great advantage because the region can always be distinguished from others, when it should be found on the map. 

2. Some of the regional tourism products firmly take their place in the international market, are part of the global system sales: semuzhya (salmon) fishing, Arctic cruises, etc. There are new tourism products based on the use of natural resources - scuba diving, snowmobile safaris, ethnic tours, etc. In an exclusive tours Murmansk region is better than other regions. This can create a massive tourist flows. 

There is rapidly growing leisure and entertainment in Murmansk. From 2005 to 2007 number of catering companies increased by 10% and amounted to 371 companies. There are nearly 1000 seats allotted in the public catering objects in 2006 of which the share of Murmansk accounted for 84%. Tour companies actively investing their own development: constructed buildings, purchased transportation, created roads, power lines held in small villages, etc. 

The role of municipalities in the development of tourism 

The role of municipalities in the management of tourism to date has never been greater. Recently, in the Murmansk region occurred great changes: In many municipalities, there were specialists who oversee the tourism issues that were not in 2006. There is an active process of integration of municipal entities in the system of tourism management. 

System management of tourism is a tourist policy pursued by local authorities. It includes the creation of optimal conditions for the development of tourism through legal, economic instruments, allocation of material and human resources according to its priority, etc. Law defines the main directions and they are the same as for regional and municipal authorities. 

Basic directions: 
1. Prioritizing the development of tourism and the development of appropriate programs; 
2. Creating an attractive image of the municipal education, promotion of this image in domestic and national and international markets - this is what the municipality should invest. 
3. Coordination of efforts and resources of public and private sector in building tourism infrastructure: the state cannot engage in the construction of hotels, but can create conditions so that investors wanted to invest in the creation of such large objects. 

4. Providing access to a tourist region, protection of tourist attractions in the territory of the municipality. 

5. Identification of priority activities for marketing and advertising of tourist area in order to enhance its attractiveness. 

Priorities, principles and objectives of tourism policy, terms defined in the implementation program of tourism development - in this program defines the main directions of development of the tourist area, the tools of its regulation. 

In order to improve programming and to ensure the methodological unity of municipal and regional programs 11 July 2007 the Federal Tourism Agency has issued an order number 66, "On Approval of the model structure of the municipal regional tourism development program of Russia": Today in many regions are being attempted and are different municipal, regional programs. Of course, there are some general principles of their creation but they differ from each other. To bring it to a single system was developed by this document (more familiar with this document may be on the site of the federal agency). This program is a set of activities carried out on the territory of the municipality in tourism. The main goal is to create the conditions for a modern competitive tourist complex, providing on the one hand the needs of the population in tourist services, on the other hand contribute to the economic development of the municipality, a steady stream of financial resources increase, conservation and rational use of socio-cultural potential of municipal education. 
Writing such programs - a tool receiving money for municipalities to allocate funds for the development of tourism. Stages of development: 

1. Assessing the current state of the tourism industry, i.e. internal and external factors (natural conditions, historical and cultural resources, material and technical resources, etc.), the scheme of interaction with the private sector; 

2. Definition of the prospects of tourism development (analysis of the real potential - to identify strengths and weaknesses of the region, identification of priority tourist flows to estimate the possible socio-economic implications of tourism development in the region); 

3. Determine the structure of the volume and quality characteristics (location and amount of funding needed to implement the program of tourist development in the region, this source of funds: federal, regional, local budget). 

In order to exploit their tourism resources, we must develop tourism infrastructure in these areas. In Umba, for example, there is not enough accommodation. People simply have nowhere to sleep! So, most importantly, what ought to reflect the municipal government - is to initiate the construction of a hotel complex or guesthouses. Thereby create jobs, increase tax revenues in the budget. In this regard, there is a good use: a few years ago the word tourism at the municipal level, not even uttered and now, thanks to implementation of the Program of Tourism Development of the Murmansk region and international cooperation, in the south of the Kola Peninsula for 2 years to open 3 tourist information center: in Kirovsk , Kandalaksha and Umba. 

It municipalities, which will have elements of tourist infrastructure, where people can come and get, for example, tourist maps and the initial information about the region. There are also specialists in tourism: a municipality "Apatity" a program of tourism development, in Kola and Monchegorsk last year opened a tourist information center. I.e. municipalities are gradually beginning to consider their territory just as tourist areas. 

The role of small and medium business 

Today, in support of tourism is no special institutions. But there are tools and institutions that support the business in general. Two and a half years actively expanded program of financial support for small business: in 2006 from the regional budget allocated 6 million rub. In 2007 - 23 million rubles. Payment of the interest rates on loans: in 2006, the entrepreneurs received 44 grants of 2 million rubles. In 2007, they already got 62 grants amounting to 3,2 million rubles. This single investment project of tourist companies was not. But the regional budget of the Government of the Murmansk region supports all activities with a few exceptions (the sale of alcoholic beverages, the sale of excise goods, purchase of cars, construction of offices). 

For example, you can open the cottage, to invest their resources through a loan and get the interest rate of these costs in the amount of up to 50%. 

Moreover, this procedure is transparent. Department of Economic Development conducted the first administrative regulations of financial support, which spelled out from "a" to "z" and the official duties of the applicant. 

Today, many entrepreneurs have a certain property or properties they have built as a private house but used for the reception of tourists offering a range of tourist services: the organization of fishing, hunting, baths, walks on the boat, etc. There are very much such facilities on the map of the Kola Peninsula. In fact, such people have a tourist service but as actors the economic tourism, they are missing because they do not have the certification. Thus, they are would not existing. 

Aspiring entrepreneurs come to the Department of Economic Development and wondering what to do in this situation. "We must conduct a lot of work to help those people who want to go legit on the tourist map of the Murmansk region. - Explains Marina Kovtun, Head of Department of interregional economic relations and tourism department of economic development of the Murmansk region. - To become the legal employer must be a lot of money: certification, the contract with the MOE to security, the purchase of communications equipment which could ensure safety of tourists. After all tourist services offered by the company without certification - taking place under the responsibility of the entrepreneur. 

Tour Operators 

To date, travel companies are the engines of tourism development. They separate from the hotels, legends, fairy tales, restaurants create a special new product which will eventually buys a tourist. 

On the Kola Peninsula is unique in terms of tourism area, for example, Umba, Terskij shore. There are historical, natural and architectural monuments preserved Pomorskii life. But the tourist business there is structured so that the local budget will not receive a penny. Tourist stops in the hotel in the town of Kandalaksha, there sits on the bus and goes on an excursion on the Terskij shore. At best, he can buy a ticket to the local museum. Of course, no financial gain, such tours of the area did not bring. Most of these tours do not even organize Murmansk travel companies, as Moscow and St. Petersburg. 

If the Internet search engine type, for example, "rest on the Kola Peninsula", the computer will give hundreds of proposals from the capital travel agencies not only for trips on the Terskij shore but New Year's celebrations in Hibinah, biking to the lake Seid, etc. 

Profits from this activity goes not to the treasury of the Murmansk region but in the pockets of the capital's tourist operators. 

On the Kola Peninsula, a huge number of people living on income from tourism (tour operators, hotels) but it is impossible to count the people who provide services as personal guides. This happens on the Terskij shore: come visit, stay in private homes, they are professional escort services for fishing, hunting and it cost some money. Tourists are calculated with such guides in cash and in the economy of the municipal entity they do not fall. To hire the firms of Moscow residents of the Murmansk region, where the latter do not have the status of an individual entrepreneur is not profitable. It should be noted that areas such as Terskij Beach, Lovozero, Krasnoshchelye most depressing in terms of development, and financial income from tourism is here could greatly improve the situation. 
Specially for tour operators and travel agencies available: 
• free accommodation information, photos on the tourist portal; 
• free jobs at all shows; 
• placement on a free basis of the information in guidebooks, the tourist industry, in all publications, which are officially published authorities. 

Approximately 10 million tourists annually make cruise travel. Murmansk region is in the tourist area of their advantage - an ice-free port. 

By Tour Operator Ermolina: "Typically, cruise ships, we are engaged in the summer, it is 3 - 4 vessels per season. On a big cruise ship about 800 passengers on a small boat - 200 passengers. 

There are several problems that we face: 
1. In our city passenger terminal to serve the tourists they’re at all. On the Passenger Terminal is a pier for receiving small vessels but it is equipped for customs inspection, i.e. it is not the crossing points. And the big ships have to be put or in a commercial port or in a fish because only when there are suitable moorings. But keep in mind that the ports - the enterprise without a permit regime and not get there, and this can be a serious problem in the organization of service of passengers. 
2. No decent Coach (working microphone, clean windows, air conditioning, etc.) in sufficient quantity. Often, for big ships require 15-18 buses. Over the years, this situation has not improved since fleet of buses is not updated, and private companies price twice. 
3. No adaptations for the disabled - such people cannot participate in this round. Neither the coaches nor the museums have any devices for lifting wheelchairs, no ramps. 
4. The lack of tourist class hotels (2-3 stars). 
5. Failure booking of hotel rooms well in advance. 
6. The lack of licensed guides in the area. 

Problems 

What hinders the development of tourism to date: 
1. The low level of infrastructure (roads, lack of hotels, prices, lack of infrastructure and roadside objects, etc.). 
2. Small businesses do not invest money in small-scale infrastructure facilities. 
3. Difficult to find bright natural and historic objects (Terskij shore district has no legal placements). 
4. Large flows of amateur tourism (this type of tourism satisfies a need in the journey but at the same time is attracting attention and care of MOE, leaving behind the fire, spoiling the natural sights and not bringing anything the economy of the region). 
5. Status hotel sector: the number of placements determines capacity of the tourism market, i.e. how many people can accommodate in our city with an average comfort. Since the beginning of the year we do not operate the Hotel Arctic. Yes, it is not long since modernized and eventually ceased to meet the requirements of the hotel of high class but because it is large, located in the city center and is classified as "economy class", it has been popular for travel, sports. And as soon fell out of the hotel infrastructure, many tourists who planned to visit Murmansk, postponed their trips. 
6. Low level of service. 
7.Otsutstvie infrastructure for business: in Murmansk, not an event that could simultaneously come to 500 people, and be able to accommodate a conference. 
8. Low level of service at the airport. 
9. The presence of border-regulated areas. 

Decision 

The success of tourism is a very delicate matter. Depends on the condition of all branches, on which the (transport, accommodation, meals, entertainment, political climate, the weather), and is not a fight for tourist flows but for a specific person. 

Already funded several tourist project: the holy places of the Terek Bank pomor rowing regatta, Pomeranian heritage, Santa Claus in Lapland Reserve, the establishment of tourist information centers (Kirovsk, SBA, on the order of Apatity and Kandalaksha). Issued by the collections, guidebooks, promotional products, calendar of tourist events, produced two films about the tourism opportunities of Murmansk Region. 

In September 2006, for consideration by the Government of Norway was presented one of the projects "Development Zone Pomeranian: Pomeranian in the area will combine the possibility of the area from Kirkenes to Pechenga. The Government of the Murmansk region has supported this project because creation of a special economic zone would be a good candidate for a boundary and international cooperation, and simplified border crossing would improve communication between human beings and, ultimately, would improve the possibilities of tourism in the region. Creating such a zone, the Government of the Murmansk region offers on Svalbard. 
For the attractiveness of Murmansk as a tourist center of the Kola Peninsula, offers the following business ideas: 
1. Creating a golf club: Murmansk - the city where you can play golf at night (polar day). 
2. Development of trails for snowmobiles, used in summer for bicycle paths. 
3. The development of marine eco-tourism and cruise tours. 

Inconsistency in the real space tourism its practical location is a big problem today. Revenues from this sector are reflected inadequate, so relevant in the management at regional level is the same: if the sector is so small, then do not have to pay attention. But on the contrary it needs special attention because in all countries of the world state during the formative stages of this industry has played a very important role. Tourism should be a sector of the economy, such as in France or Spain where tourist numbers exceed the number of residents. 

The main wealth of the Kola region is nature. We have no in region or Petrodvorets, neither the king sat down, gold rings but there are natural resources that allow you to create a variety of tourism products, ranging from ski tours, ending body rafting. To describe the Kola Peninsula we see that we have a lot of exclusive products: travel, skiing trips, and snowmobile tours. We have a river through which can develop fisheries. But this is not a mass type of tourism and it cannot create 20 thousand jobs as River is the river and they have limited resources. But there may be sports offers: alloys, rafting, etc. 

All this requires a large staff engaged in walking and the use of special equipment: Polaris, quad, snowmobiles, jeeps, SUVs, etc. If you use natural resources - hence, it is necessary to prepare personnel, purchase equipment, supplies and provide all security issues. 

Already much has been done in this direction: a project conducted jointly with the Finns and funded by the Provincial Office of Lapland and the Department of Economic Development, "Safety in the field of tourism" is valid for 3 years. During this period there were many trained professionals and trainers, studied the experience of Finland in the organization of tours to nature. 

To date, together with the Finnish company developed a project to create a tourist ski center in Hibinah. This pre-project work: to continue to attract investors you must now have the basic characteristics of its investment attractiveness of the territory. 

It is important that the municipalities are actively involved in the management of tourism. Develop municipal programs that offer tourist information centers, all municipal education south of the Kola Peninsula are parties to international projects in the field of tourism. 

Today is the stage when there is an opportunity to not only articulate but also begin to move almost to the creation and implementation of large tourist projects. 

If both: power and municipal, and regional and tourist community are united we can expect the completion of major tasks and plans. 

Prepared by Sholomova Natalia 

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